Programming Examples

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SQL Server

Articles on SQL, TSQL and Management Studio. You can download Microsoft supplied sample database here:

SQL-CLR Function – Creating & Using it

Configure SQL CLR and Create Assembly using T-SQL - Refer Code Listing 2

First, database developers write the functions in Dotnet framework and then expose that via a DLL. The SQL server, then loads the DLL into DB engine and starts picking up functions exposed by it. In native SQL language, one can write functions, stored procedures, and triggers. In Dotnet framework, besides these, one can write custom Aggregate Functions and can even define own User-defined Types.

Using the Surface Area Configuration tool, one can ask SQL server to allow the injection of Dotnet Framework code in its core engine. This tool ships with the SQL Server installer. The below given steps show enabling the SQL-CLR integration via this tool.

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SQL Table-Valued Function Example

Multi-line table valued function example

In the past article we saw creating a simple scalar-valued function. Now, here in this article, we will look at building the Table-Valued function. Unlike the scalar-valued function a table-valued function returns a table to the caller. There are two kinds of table-valued functions we can write. Those are:

In-Line Table-Valued functions
Multi-line table valued functions

In this Example, we learn how to create both the functions. OK, let us start.

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SQL Scalar-Valued Function Explained

SQL Scalar-Valued function with Parameter

Stored Procedure and function in SQL server are the compiled unit of SQL Program which performs a specific task. Unlike a stored procedure, a User-Defined Function in SQL server can take part in the SQL Select Queries. In this example, we will try to create and use the Scalar-Valued Function in the SQL Server. A Scalar-Valued function returns a single value to its caller.

We create the Examples in this article using Microsoft supplied Titles table of Pubs database. You can download the SQL Script that creates the Pubs and NorthWnd database from the SQL 2005 Section of this site. Before we begin, here is the content of the Titles table that we can refer while going through the article:

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SQL Triggers Explained With Examples

Trigger Execution order when both AFTER & INSTEAD OF Exists

An ‘SQL Trigger’ is a compiled unit of SQL Server procedure, which can run automatically when an event occurs on the database objects. For example, you can write a piece of SQL Script (the trigger), which can be called whenever an insert (the event) takes place on a specific table. There are various types of triggers possible in SQL Server. The two crucial types are:

DDL Triggers: These triggers act on ‘Data Definition Language’; say, for example, a trigger procedure runs whenever a table is created. We can say DDL trigger as an ‘Database level trigger’ hence it acts on the DB. SQL Server invokes the Trigger procedure whenever the manipulation like Create, Alter and Drop takes place on its DB objects.

DML Triggers: These triggers act on ‘Data Manipulation Language’. In DB world, the tables maintain the Data. So, we can do manipulating data through the tables by making use of Insert, Update and Delete statements on the table. We can call DML trigger as an ‘Table Level Trigger’ since it operates at table level. Simply,

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Updating Table Data Via SQL Views

Joins and Calculated Columns

An SQL View is nothing but a select query with a name given to it or we can say a view is a ‘Named Query’. Why we need a view? There will be a lot of answers for this. Some important answers are below:

1) A View can bring data from many tables by using suitable joins and while bringing so, it may use complex filters and calculated data to form the needed result set. In user point of view, all these complications are hidden, and they feel that they are pulling data from a single table.
2) Some time for security reasons, access to the table and its private details like table schema and relations are not given to the DB users. All they have is access to a view without the knowledge of what tables are actually sitting in the DB.
3) Using the view, the DB admin can restrict an user to update only some portions of the records.

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